Beboj montras indikaĵojn de moraleco eĉ antaŭ ol ili spertas multe da la mondo.

Lastatempa esplorado pri infana moraleco montras ke, ekde la aĝo de 14 monatoj, infanoj spontanee helpas aliajn sen atendo de rekompenco (Warneken & Tomasello, 2007).

Dum la lasta jardeko, moraleca esplorado pri infanoj kreskegis. Eksperimentoj nun konstatas, ke eĉ beboj montras instinktajn inklinojn por helpi aliajn.[1]

Pripensu lastatempan esploradon per pupoj kun beboj: Beboj rigardas pupan teatraĵon, en kiu, unu pupo estas helpema kaj alia pupo estas malhelpema. Eĉ tri-monataĝaj beboj respondas malsame al tiuj pupoj.[2]

Ses-monataĝaj beboj ankaŭ respondas afable al helpantoj.[3] Ekde la aĝo de 18 monatoj, infanoj mem volonte helpas, ke aliaj atingu siajn celojn.[4] Bon-socia konduto aperas inter infanoj tiel junaj kiel du-jaraĝaj.[5] Kaj tiel plu.

Multaj tenas la malĝustan kredon, ke homoj naskiĝas nur sinzorgaj, kaj tiam, iom post iom, moraliĝas per religia instruado.  Mankas pruvo por tiu kredo.[6] Ekzemple, en unu eksperimentaro, persono malsukcese etendas sian brakon al objekto. La plejparto de infanoj helpeme transdonas la objekton. Eĉ 14-monataĝaj infanoj klopodas helpi. En ĉi tiuj eksperimentoj, infanoj helpis aliajn en la daŭro de 6.9 sekundoj, meznombre.[7]

La junaĝa apero de morala konduto klarigas kial religioj kaj mond-vidpunktoj ne necesas, por ke moraleco ekaperu. Kunlaboremo, morala rezonado, socia taksado, kaj senpeta helpado estas denaskaj kaj universalaj.[8-15]

Aserto 3
Hejmpaĝo

Konsultaĵoj

  • Banerjee, K., & Bloom, P. (2017). You get what you give: Children's karmic bargaining. Developmental Science, 20(5). PDf
  • Cummins, D.D. (1996). Evidence for the innateness of deontic reasoning. Mind and Language, 11, 160–190. PDf
  • Cummins, D.D. (1996). Evidence of deontic reasoning in 3- and 4-year-olds. Memory and Cognition, 24, 823–29.
  • Engelmann, J. M., Herrmann, E., Rapp, D., & Tomasello, M. (2016). Young children (sometimes) do the right thing even when their peers do not. Cognitive Development, 39, 86-92. PDf
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  • Hamlin, J. K., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P. (2007). Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature, 450, 557-559. PDF
  • Hamlin, J.K., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P. (2010). Three-month-olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations. Developmental Science, 13(6), 923-929. PDF
  • Hardecker, S., & Tomasello, M. (2017). From imitation to implementation: How two‐and three‐year‐old children learn to enforce social norms. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35(2), 237-248. PDF
  • Heiphetz, L., Lane, J. D., Waytz, A., & Young, L. L. (2018). My mind, your mind, and God's mind: How children and adults conceive of different agents’ moral beliefs. British Journal of Developmental Psychology.PDF
  • Heiphetz, L., Gelman, S. A., & Young, L. L. (2017). The perceived stability and biological basis of religious beliefs, factual beliefs, and opinions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156, 82-98.PDF
  • Heiphetz, L., Lane, J. D., Waytz, A., & Young, L. L. (2015). How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind. Cognitive science.PDF
  • Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E. S., & Young, L. L. (2015). In the name of God - How children and adults judge agents who act for religious versus secular reasons. Cognition, 144, 134-149.PDF
  • Hepach, R., Haberl, K., Lambert, S., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Toddlers help anonymously. Infancy, 22(1), 130-145.PDF
  • Hepach, R., Kante, N., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Toddlers help a peer. Child Development, 88(5), 1642-1652.PDF
  • Leslie, A.M., Knobe, J., & Cohen, A. (2006). Acting intentionally and the side-effect effect: 'Theory of mind' and moral judgment. Psychological Science17,421–427. PDf
  • Leslie, A.M., Mallon, R., & DiCorcia, J.A. (2006). Transgressors, victims, and cry babies: Is basic moral judgment spared in autism? Social Neuroscience1 (3), 270 – 283. PDF
  • McAuliffe, K., Blake, P. R., Steinbeis, N., & Warneken, F. (2017). The developmental foundations of human fairness. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(2), 0042. PDF
  • Riedl, K., Jensen, K., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2015). Restorative justice in children. Current Biology, 25(13), 1731-1735.PDF
  • Rossano, F., Fiedler, L., & Tomasello, M. (2015). Preschoolers’ understanding of the role of communication and cooperation in establishing property rights. Developmental psychology, 51(2), 176.PDF
  • Tasimi, A., & Young, L. (2016). Memories of good deeds past- the reinforcing power of prosocial behavior in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 147, 159-166. PDF
  • Tomasello, M., & Gonzalez-Cabrera, I. (2017). The role of ontogeny in the evolution of human cooperation. Human Nature, 28(3), 274-288. PDF
  • Ulber, J., Hamann, K., & Tomasello, M. (2017). Young children, but not chimpanzees, are averse to disadvantageous and advantageous inequities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 155, 48-66.PDF
  • Ulber, J., Hamann, K., & Tomasello, M. (2015). How 18-and 24-month-old peers divide resources among themselves. Journal of experimental child psychology, 140, 228-244.PDF
  • Vaish, A., Herrmann, E., Markmann, C., & Tomasello, M. (2016). Preschoolers value those who sanction non-cooperators. Cognition, 153, 43-51. PDF
  • Vogelsang, M., & Tomasello, M. (2016). Giving is nicer than taking: Preschoolers reciprocate based on the social intentions of the distributor. PLoS One, 11(1)- e0147539. PDF
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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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