Protože morálka vznikala během evoluce, existuje ve všech společnostech a kulturách.

Protože se morální univerzálie, jako ty zde zobrazené, vyskytují obecně ve všech lidských kulturách s žádnými známými výjimkami, jsou to s největší pravděpodobností psychologické jevy (Brown, 1991).

Antropolog Donald E. Brown nečekal, že objeví morální jednotu lidstva. Ale objevil.

Vědec hledal behaviorální nebo kognitivní vlastnosti, které jsou společné všem neurologicky normálními lidem, bez ohledu na to, ke které kultuře patřili. Chtěl vytvořit seznam "lidských univerzálií" pro všechny společnosti.

Jeho projekt odhalil řadu stálých etických vzorů přítomných v každé kultuře.

Náboženství a systémy víry na všech kontinentech byly velmi pestré a rozmanité. Nicméně, každé zakazovalo určité chování. Znásilnění? - Zakázáno. Vražda? - Zakázáno všude.[1]

Byly identifikovány další společné rysy. Například empatie. Spolupráce. Hanba. Koncept spravedlnosti. A tak dále. Od vyspělých západních demokracií až po izolované domorodé společnosti - "morální univerzálie".[2]

Desetiletí výzkumu mnoha kultur prokázala, že žádná společnost nemá monopol na dobré chování. Morální lidské chování nezávisí na tom, jaké preferujete náboženství či božstvo [3-7]; to ukazuje na jeho evoluční kořeny.

Dnes se velká část globálního výzkumu věnuje výzkumu morálky v různých kulturách; část z této části vychází z morálních univerzálií, které objevil Brown.[8-11] Sociolog Ara Norenzayan to shrnuje: "… spojení náboženství s morálkou je kulturně proměnlivé; vazba je slabá nebo neexistuje v malých skupinách, a v průběhu času a napříč společnostmi sílí s velikostí skupiny a nárůstem společenské složitosti."[12]

Tvrzení 2
Tvrzení 4

Odkazy

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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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