I bambini mostrano segni di moralità già prima di avere effettiva esperienza del mondo.

Recenti ricerche sulla moralità infantile dimostrano che, a partire dai 14 mesi di età, i bambini aiutano gli altri spontaneamente, senza aspettarsi alcuna ricompensa (Warneken & Tomasello, 2007).

Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio c’è stato un boom della ricerca sulla moralità infantile. Oggi studi sperimentali dimostrano che i bambini mostrano tendenze innate ad aiutare gli altri sin dalla prima infanzia.

Consideriamo i recenti studi  condotti sui bambini  con l’ausilio di pupazzi: un pupazzo aiuta (un individuo), un altro ostacola (un individuo diverso). I bambini osservano i comportamenti premurosi e quelli scostanti, e già a tre mesi di età reagiscono  in maniera diversa ai due pupazzi.

Anche a sei mesi di età i bambini reagiscono positivamente agli individui che aiutano gli altri. A 18 mesi, i bambini stessi aiutano prontamente le altre persone a raggiungere i loro obiettivi. È dimostrato che la pro-socialità emerge sin dai 2 anni di età, e così via.

Per quanto diffusa, l’erronea credenza secondo cui gli umani nascono di per sé egoisti e diventano poi gradualmente morali tramite gli insegnamenti religiosi, è priva di fondamento. Ne è un esempio l’esperimento in cui una persona cerca di raggiungere un oggetto, senza successo. La maggior parte dei bambini l’aiuta, porgendoglielo. Persino i bambini di soli 14 mesi si muovono in suo aiuto. In questi  esperimenti, i bambini offrono aiuto in media entro 6,9 secondi.

Lo sviluppo precoce  del comportamento morale getta luce sul motivo per cui le varie fedi religiose e visioni del mondo non sono necessarie alla nascita della moralità. Coperatività, giudizio morale, egalitarismo, valutazione sociale e assistenza proattiva sono tratti  innati e universali.

Affermazione 3
Pagina iniziale

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