In quanto frutto dell'evoluzione, la moralità esiste in tutte le società e culture.

Essendo universalmente presenti in tutte le culture umane, senza eccezioni note, universali morali come quelli qui riportati sono, con ogni probabilità, dei fenomeni psicologici frutto dell'evoluzione (Brown, 1991).

L’antropologo Donald E. Brown non si aspettava di scoprire l’unità morale dell’umanità, ma è quello che ha fatto.

Lo scienziato stava cercando tratti comportamentali o cognitivi che fossero comuni a tutti gli umani neurologicamente normali, a prescindere dalla loro cultura di appartenenza. La sua idea era quella di compilare una lista di “universali umani” presenti  in tutte le società.

Il suo progetto scoprì  un certo numero di schemi  etici costanti, presenti in ogni singola cultura.

Le religioni e le credenze dei vari continenti erano estremamente diversificate, eppure ciascuna di esse vietava determinati comportamenti. Lo stupro? Proibito. L’omicidio? Vietato in tutte.

Furono identificati altri aspetti in comune: l’empatia, la collaborazione, la vergogna, il concetto di equità ecc.
Dalle sviluppate democrazie occidentali fino alle società indigene isolate, “universali morali”.

Decenni di ricerca interculturale hanno dimostrato che il buon comportamento non è monopolio di alcuna società. Il comportamento morale non dipende dalla religione o divinità di riferimento dell’individuo, e questo ne indica le  radici evolutive.

Esiste ora un consistente corpus di ricerca globale sul tema della moralità attraverso le culture, in parte basato sulle universali morali scoperte da Brown. L’esperto di scienze sociali Ara Norenzayan riassume così: “…il collegamento della religione con la moralità varia a seconda della cultura; questo legame è debole o assente in gruppi di piccole dimensioni e si rafforza con l'aumentare delle dimensioni e della complessità sociale del  gruppo, nel corso del tempo e attraverso le società.”

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Affermazione 4

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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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