Omdat moraliteit verworven is door evolutie bestaat het in alle maatschappijen en culturen.

Omdat ze zonder uitzondering voorkomen in alle menselijke culturen zijn universele morele waarden zoals je vindt in deze tabel waarschijnlijk geëvolueerde phsychologische fenomenen (Brown, 1991).

Antropoloog Donald E. Brown verwachtte niet om een morele eenheid te vinden voor de hele mensheid maar dat is wat hij vond.

Brown was aan het zoeken naar gedragingen en mentale kenmerken die alle neurologisch normale mensen delen, over alle culturen heen. Zijn idee was om een lijst te maken met ‘universele menselijke waarden’ in alle maatschappijen.

Het project ontdekte een aantal constante ethische patronen in elke cultuur. De religies en geloofssystemen op alle continenten zijn kleurrijk en gevarieerd maar toch verbieden ze alle bepaald gedrag. Verkrachting? verboden. Moord? verboden in alle maatschappijen.

Andere overeenkomsten werden gevonden zoals empathie, samenwerking, schaamte, eerlijkheid enzovoort. Van  westerse democratieën tot geïsoleerde ‘primitieve’ stammen: universele morele waarden.

Tientallen jaren onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat geen enkele maatschappij het monopolie heeft op goed gedrag. Moreel gedrag hangt niet af van een persoon zijn religie of favoriete god hetgeen aangeeft dat moraliteit evolutionaire wortels heeft.

Moraliteit in culturen over de hele wereld is nu uitvoeriger bestudeerd. Sociale wetenschapper Ara Norenzayan vat het als volgt samen: “… het verband tussen moraliteit en religie verschilt af van cultuur tot cultuur; het verband is zwak of niet bestaand in kleine groepen maar wordt sterker naargelang de groepen groter worden en de maatschappij ingewikkelder wordt.

Stelling 2
Stelling 4

Bronnen

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