As crianças exibem comportamentos morais ainda antes de terem grande experiência de vida.

Investigação recente sobre a moral em crianças mostra que, começando aos 14 meses de idade, estas ajudam espontaneamente outras sem esperar nenhuma recompensa (Warneken & Tomasello, 2007).

Na última década houve uma explosão na investigação sobre a moral em crianças. Estudos experimentais mostram agora que as crianças já demonstram tendências inatas para ajudar os outros.

Tenha-se em conta a investigação recente com marionetas e bebés: uma marioneta ajuda um indivíduo, outra atrapalha um outro indivíduo. Os bebés observam a conduta prestável ou obstrutiva. Crianças de apenas três meses reagem de forma diferente a estas marionetas.

Aos seis meses reagem positivamente aos indivíduos que ajudam outros. Aos dezoito meses de idade, as crianças prontamente ajudam outros para atingir os seus objectivos. Demonstrou-se que a pró-sociabilidade pode emergir tão cedo quanto os dois anos de idade. E por aí fora.

Embora popular, a incorreta crença de que os humanos nascem inerentemente egoístas e se vão tornando seres morais através da religião carece de provas. Por exemplo, num conjunto de experiências, um indivíduo tenta, sem sucesso, alcançar um objecto. A maior parte das crianças passa prestavelmente o objecto. Até crianças de apenas 14 meses se mexem para ajudar. Em média, as crianças, nos testes experimentais, ajudaram os outros dentro de 6,9 segundos.

O precoce desenvolvimento do comportamento moral vem trazer luz sobre como as fés e visões do mundo não são necessárias para o emergir da moral. Cooperação, julgamento moral, igualitarismo, avaliação social e prestabilidade pró-ativa são inatos e universais.

Afirmação 3
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