Porque a moral é adquirida através da evolução, existe em todas as sociedades e culturas.

Porque ocorrem universalmente em todas as culturas sem excepções conhecidas, componentes universais da Moral como os aqui representados são, muito provavelmente, fenómenos psicológicos desenvolvidos através dos tempos (Brown, 1991).

O antropólogo Donald E. Brown não esperava descobrir a unidade moral da Humanidade. Mas descobriu.

O cientista procurava caraterísticas comportamentais ou cognitivas comuns a todos os humanos neurologicamente normais, independentemente da cultura a que pertencessem. A sua ideia era listar “universais humanos” comuns a todas as sociedades.

O seu projecto descobriu uma quantidade de padrões éticos constantes e presentes em todas as culturas.

As fés e sistemas de crença em todos os continentes eram muitas e variadas. No entanto, cada qual bania certas condutas. Violação? Interdita. Assassínio? Proibido em todas.

Foram identificados outros pontos comuns. Empatia, por exemplo. Cooperação. Vergonha. O conceito de justeza. E muitos mais. Das desenvolvidas democracias ocidentais a sociedades indígenas isoladas – “universais morais”.

  Décadas de investigação cultural cruzada vieram demonstrar que nenhuma sociedade detém o monopólio do bom comportamento. A conduta moral humana não depende da religião ou divindade preferida de cada um, o que aponta para as suas raízes evolucionárias.

Existe agora um largo corpo de investigação global sobre a moral através das culturas, que em parte foi construído sobre as universais morais descobertas por Brown. A cientista social Ara Norenzayan resume-o: “... A ligação da religião à moral é culturalmente variável; esta relação é fraca ou ausente em pequenos grupos e solidifica-se à medida que, ao longo do tempo e através das várias sociedades, aumenta o tamanho do grupo e a complexidade social.”

Afirmação 2
Afirmação 4

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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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