Moralitas adalah produk evolusi dan pengalaman manusia.

Moralitas berasal dari biokimia yang berkembang dari otak dan juga pengaruh sosial budaya. Yang ditampilkan di atas ini adalah beberapa struktur anatomi sistem saraf terkait dengan moralitas (Pascual et al., 2013).

Is human morality a product of nature? Of nurture? There has been a long dispute in the social sciences about which is responsible. The debate has largely been unproductive. It seems that morality results from both nature and nurture.[1][2]

Nature already supplies many elements of humanity’s moral psychology. Research in the evolutionary behavioral sciences has accumulated strong evidence: the hardware of our brains is pre-programmed with propensities for moral judgment. We are ready to feel shame or exhibit cooperation.[3] We are already outfitted for empathy, altruism, and compassion.[4]

So, too, do we come readily equipped for what most people regard as immoral behavior. Because of our brains, humans are capable of violence. We are prepared to sometimes inflict pain.[5][6]

Humans are geared by nature toward learning ethical behavior from their social environments.[7] So, as we live, nurture is also at work. Upbringing by family members counts. Socialization by peers and communities about “right” or “wrong” is critical to shaping conduct.[8][9]

Reconciling these disparate parts of ourselves requires an understanding of humankind’s social and cognitive complexity. One thing is clear from the research: religious imperative is not necessary for morality.[10] Research shows that such moral sentiments encourage our caring for and helping others evolved independently of religion.[11][12]

Pernyataan 2


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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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