Moral är en produkt av evolutionen och mänsklig erfarenhet.

Moral härstammar från både hjärnans biokemi, som kommer från evolutionen, och socio-kulturell påverkan. Här visas några av de anatomiska strukturer som hör ihop med moral (Pascual et al., 2013).

Är den mänskliga moralen en produkt av arv? Av miljö? Det har länge diskuterats inom
samhälls- och beteendevetenskaperna vilken som är ansvarig. Debatten har i stor utsträckning varit improduktiv. Det verkar som moralen är ett reslutat av både arv och miljö.

Arvet tillför redan många komponenter till mänsklighetens moralpsykologi. Forskning inom evolutionär beteendevetenskap har samlat på sig stark evidens: hjärnans hårdvara är förprogrammerad med benägenheter för moraliska bedömningar. Vi är redo för att känna skam eller uppvisa samarbete. Vi är redan utrustade för empati, altruism och medkänsla.

Dessutom, vi kommer redan utrustade för vad de flesta människor betraktar som omoraliskt beteende. På grund av våra hjärnor är människor kapabla till våld. Vi är beredda att ibland vålla smärta.

Människor är anpassade av naturen att lära sig etiskt beteende från sin sociala omgivning. Så, under tiden vi lever, miljön är också i arbete. Uppfostran från familjemedlemmar räknas. Socialisation från kamrater och gemenskaper om ”rätt” och ”fel” är livsviktigt för att forma uppförande.

Att förena dessa olikartade delar av oss själva kräver en förståelse av mänsklighetens sociala och kognitiva komplexitet. En sak är säker från forskningen: religiösa befallningar är inte nödvändiga för moralen. Forskning visar att moraliska känslor som befrämjar vår omsorg om och att hjälpa andra utveckaldes oberoende av religion.

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Påstående 2

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