Moralidade é um produto da evolução e da experiência humana.

Moralidade é derivada da bioquímica evoluída do cérebro e de influências sócio-culturais. São exibidas algumas das estruturas neuro-anatômicas associadas à moralidade (Pascual et al., 2013).

A moralidade humana é um produto da natureza? Da educação? Existe uma discussão antiga nas ciências sociais sobre qual é responsável. O debate tem sido na maioria das vezes improdutivo. Parece que a moralidade é resultado tanto da natureza como da educação.

A natureza já fornece muitos elementos da psicologia moral humana. Pesquisas em ciências do comportamento evolutivo acumulam fortes evidências: as estruturas do nosso cérebro são pré-programadas com tendências para julgamento moral. Nós estamos prontos para sentir vergonha ou mostrar cooperação. Nós estamos preparados para empatia, altruísmo e compaixão.

Da mesma forma, nós estamos preparados para o que a maioria das pessoas considera comportamento imoral. Por causa do nosso cérebro, humanos são capazes de violência. Nós estamos preparados para infligir dor de vez em quando.

Os humanos são equipados por natureza para aprender comportamentos éticos de seus ambientes sociais. Dessa forma, ao longo da vida, educação também tem sua contribuição. A educação pelos membros da família é importante. Socialização pelas pessoas e comunidades sobre “certo” e “errado” é fundamental para a formação da conduta.

Conciliar essas diferentes partes de nós mesmo requer uma compreensão da complexidade social e cognitiva da humaninade. Uma coisa é clara da pesquisa: imperativos religiosos não são necessários para moralidade. Pesquisas mostram que tais sentimentos morais incentivam nossa solidariedade e o costume de ajudar os outros evoluiu independentemente de religião.

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The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

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