Por ter sido adquirida através da evolução, a moralidade existe em todas as sociedades e culturas.

Por ocorrerem universalmente em todas as culturas humanas, sem exceзхes conhecidas, afirmaзхes morais universais como as expostas aqui sгo provavelmente fenфmenos psicolуgicos decorrentes de evoluзгo (Brown, 1991).

O antropologista Donald E. Brown não esperava descobrir a unidade moral da humanidade. Mas ele o fez.

O cientista estava à procura de características comportamentais ou cognitivas comuns a todos os humanos neurologicamente saudáveis, independente de qual cultura eles pertencessem. Sua idéia era listar “universalidades humanas” em todas as sociedades.

Seu projeto trouxe à tona inúmeros padrões constantes de ética presentes em todas as culturas.

As fés e sistemas de crença em todos os continentes foram os mais variados. No entanto, cada um proibia certa conduta. Estupro? – proibido, Assasinato? – proibido em todos os casos.

Outros pontos em comum foram identificados. Empatia, por exemplo. Cooperação. Vergonha. O conceito de justiça. E assim por diante. Desde as democracias desenvolvidas do Ocidente até às isoladas sociedades indígenas – “univesalidades morais”.

Décadas de pesquisas multi-culturais demonstraram que nenhuma sociedade tem um monopólio sobre bom comportamento. Condutas morais humanas não dependem da religião ou divindades preferidas de alguém, o que aponta para suas raízes evolutivas.

Existe hoje uma consistência de pesquisas globais sobre moralidade em várias culturas, algumas construídas sobre as universalidades morais que Brown descobriu. A cientista social Ara Norenzavan resume: “…A conexão da religião com moralidade é culturamente variável; esse elo é fraco ou ausente em grupos pequenos, e se solidifica no passar do tempo com o aumento do tamanho do grupo e da complexidade social, em todas as sociedades.”

Afirmação 2
Afirmação 4

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