A moral é produto da evolução e experiência humana.

A moral deriva tanto da evolução bioquímica do cérebro como das influências socioculturais. Representadas acima estão as estruturas neuroanatómicas relacionadas com a moral (Pascual et al., 2013).

É a moral humana inata ou adquirida através da educação e experiências do indivíduo? A discussão deste tema pelas ciências sociais vai longa e tem-se revelado bastante inconclusiva: a moral parece ser tanto inata como adquirida.

Pesquisas no campo das ciências comportamentais têm vindo a acumular provas de que a Natureza já fornece muitos dos elementos da psicologia moral humana: a componente física do nosso cérebro já está pré-programada com a propensão para efectuar julgamentos morais. Os nossos cérebros estão prontos para sentir vergonha ou exibir cooperação. Já vimos equipados com mecanismos que permitem a empatia, o altruísmo e a compaixão.

Do mesmo modo, vimos também equipados com a capacidade para aquilo a que alguns chamam de comportamentos imorais. Por causa dos nossos cérebros, os humanos são capazes de violência. Somos aptos a, por vezes, infligir dor.

Os humanos são levados, por natureza, a aprender os comportamentos considerados éticos no seu meio social. Por isso, à medida que vamos vivendo, a moral vai sendo também adquirida. A educação dada por familiares conta. A sociabilização feita pelos pares e pela comunidade sobre o que é “certo” ou “errado” é crítica no moldar da conduta.

Conciliar estas partes díspares de nós mesmos requer que se compreenda a complexidade social e cognitiva do género humano. Uma coisa é evidente: o imperativo religioso não é necessário para a moralidade. A investigação mostra que tais sentimentos morais encorajam a entreajuda e evoluíram independentemente da religião.

Página base
Afirmação 2

Referências

  • Abe, N., & Greene, J. D. (2014). Response to anticipated reward in the nucleus accumbens predicts behavior in an independent test of honesty. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(32), 10564-10572.PDF
  • Bernhard, R. M., Chaponis, J., Siburian, R., Gallagher, P., Ransohoff, K., Wikler, D., ... & Greene, J. D. (2016). Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(12), 1872-1881.PDF
  • Burkart, J. M., Allon, O., Amici, F., Fichtel, C., Finkenwirth, C., Heschl, A., ... & Meulman, E. J. (2014). The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Communications, 5.PDF
  • Cesarini, D., Dawes, C. T., Fowler, J. H., Johannesson, M., Lichtenstein, P., & Wallace, B. (2008). Heritability of cooperative behavior in the trust game. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105, 3721-3726. PDF
  • Chakroff, A., & Young, L. (2015). How the Mind Matters for Morality. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(3), 43-48.PDF
  • Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (2002). Knowing thyself: The evolutionary psychology of moral reasoning and moral sentiments.  Business, Science and Ethics, 91-127.
  • Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2005). Neurocognitive adaptations designed for social exchange. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), Evolutionary Psychology Handbook. NY: Wiley. PDF
  • Curry, O. S. (2016). Morality as Cooperation - A Problem-Centred Approach. In The Evolution of Morality (pp. 27-51). Springer International Publishing.PDF
  • Cushman, F., Kumar, V., & Railton, P. (2017). Moral learning: Current and future directions. Cognition, 167, 1-10.PDF
  • Cushman, F. (2015). Deconstructing intent to reconstruct morality. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 97-103.PDF
  • Cushman, F. A., & Greene, J. D. (2012). Finding faults: How moral dilemmas reveal cognitive structure. Social Neuroscience, 7(3), 269-279. PDF
  • Cushman, F. A., Young, L., & Greene, J. (2010). Our multi-system moral psychology: Towards a consensus view. In J. Doris et al. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press. PDF
  • Darby, R. R., Horn, A., Cushman, F., & Fox, M. D. (2017). Lesion network localization of criminal behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201706587. PDF
  • DeQuervain, DJ-F., Fischbacher U., Treyer V., Schellhammer M., Schnyder U., Buck A., & Fehr E. (2004). The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science, 305, 1254-1258.
  • DeScioli, P., & Kurzban, R. (2009). Mysteries of morality. Cognition, 112, 281-299. PDF
  • DeScioli, P., & Kurzban, R. (2013). A solution to the mysteries of morality. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 477-496. PDF
  • DeScioli, P. (2016). The side-taking hypothesis for moral judgment. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 23-27. PDF
  • Decety, J., & Chaminade, T. (2003). Neural correlates of feeling sympathy. Neuropsychologia - Special Issue on Social Cognition, 41(2), 127-138. PDF
  • Efferson, C., & Fehr, E. (2018). Simple moral code supports cooperation. Nature, 555 (7695), 169. PDF
  • Everett, J.A.C., Pizarro, D. A. & Crockett, M.J., (in press). Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. PDF
  • Fehr, E. & Rockenbach, B. (2004). Human altruism: economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 784–790. PDF
  • Gervais, W. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2012) Like a camera in the sky? Thinking about God increases public self-awareness and socially desirable responding. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 298-302. PDF
  • Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 366-385. PDF
  • Greene, J. D. (2017). The rat-a-gorical imperative: Moral intuition and the limits of affective learning. Cognition, 167, 66-77.PDF
  • Greene, J. D. (2015). The rise of moral cognition. Cognition, 135, 39-42.PDF
  • Greene, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Engell, A. D., Darley, J. M. & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44, 389−400. PDF
  • Greene, J.D., Sommerville, R.B., Nystrom, L.E., Darley, J.M. & Cohen, J.D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293, 2105-2108. PDF
  • Heekeren, H. R., Wartenburger, I., Schmidt, H., Schwintowski, H. P. & Villringer, A. (2003). An fMRI study of simple ethical decision-making. Neuroreport, 14, 1215−1219.
  • Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behaviour, 151(2-3). PDF
  • Holbrook, C., Fessler, D. M., & Pollack, J. (2016). With God on our side- Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary. Cognition, 146, 387-392.PDF
  • Johnson, D. D., & MacKay, N. J. (2015). Fight the power- Lanchester's laws of combat in human evolution. Evolution and Human Behavior. 36(2), 152-163.PDF
  • Kiehl, K. A., Smith, A. M., Hare, R. D., Mendrek, A., Forster, B. B., Brink, J., & Liddle, P. F. (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry50(9), 677-684. PDF
  • Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Hauser, M., Cushman, F., & Damasio A. (2007). Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911. PDF
  • Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435, 673-676. PDF
  • Margoni, F., & Surian, L. (2015). Explaining the U-shaped development of intent-based moral judgments. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.PDF
  • Martin, J. W., & Cushman, F. (2016). Why we forgive what can't be controlled. Cognition, 147, 133-143.PDF
  • McCabe K., Houser D., Ryan L., Smith V., & Trouard T. (2001). A functional imaging study of cooperation in two-person reciprocal exchange. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, 11832-11835. PDF
  • Moll, J., Eslinger, P. J. & Oliveira-Souza, R. (2001). Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects. Arq. Neuropsiquiatry, 59, 657−664. PDF
  • Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Bramati, I. E. & Grafman, J. (2002). Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments. Neuroimage, 16, 696−703. PDF
  • Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Eslinger, P. J., Bramati, I. E., Mourão-Miranda, J., Andreiuolo, P. A., & Pessoa, L. (2002). The neural correlates of moral sensitivity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basic and moral emotions. The Journal of Neuroscience22(7), 2730-2736. PDF
  • Morris, A., MacGlashan, J., Littman, M. L., & Cushman, F. (2017). Evolution of flexibility and rigidity in retaliatory punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201704032. PDF
  • Müller, J. L., Sommer, M., Wagner, V., Lange, K., Taschler, H., Röder, C. H., Schuierer, G., Klein, H.E., & Hajak, G. (2003). Abnormalities in emotion processing within cortical and subcortical regions in criminal psychopaths: Evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using pictures with emotional content. Biological Psychiatry54(2), 152-162. PDF
  • Norenzayan, A. (2014). Does religion make people moral? Behaviour, 151, 365-384. PDF
  • Norenzayan, A., Henrich, J., & E. Slingerland (2013) Religious Prosociality: A Synthesis. In P. J. Richerson & M. H. Christiansen (Eds.), Cultural Evolution: Society, Technology, Language and Religion. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. PDF
  • Park, S. Q., Kahnt, T., Dogan, A., Strang, S., Fehr, E., & Tobler, P. N. (2017). A neural link between generosity and happiness. Nature Communications, 8, 15964. PDF
  • Pascual, L., Rodrigues, P., & Gallardo-Pujol, D. (2013). How does morality work in the brain?: A functional and structural perspective of moral behaviors. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7 (65). PDF
  • Patil, I., Calò, M., Fornasier, F., Young, L., & Silani, G. (2017). Neuroanatomical correlates of forgiving unintentional harms. Scientific Reports, 7, 45967. PDF
  • Pizarro, D.A., Inbar, Y., & Helion, C. (2011). On disgust and moral judgment. Emotion Review, 3, 267–268. PDF
  • Pizarro, D.A., Tannenbaum, D., & Uhlmann, E.L. (2012). Mindless, harmless, and blameworthy. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 185-188. PDF
  • Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L. & Colletti, P. (2000). Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57, 119−127; discussion 128−129. PDF
  • Rilling, J.K., Gutman, D.A., Zeh, T.R., Pagnoni, G., Berns, G.S., & Kilts, C.D. (2002.) A neural basis for social cooperation. Neuron, 35, 395-405. PDF
  • Rottman, J., & Young, L. (2015). Mechanisms of Moral Development. The Moral Brain: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, 123.PDF
  • Saslow, L. R., Willer, R., Feinberg, M., Piff, P. K., Clark, K., Keltner, D., & Saturn, S. R. (2012). My brother’s keeper? Compassion predicts generosity more among less religious individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 31–38. PDF
  • Schaefer, M., Haun, D., & Tomasello, M. (2015). Fair is not fair everywhere. Psychological Science, 26, 1252-1260. PDF
  • Sell, A., Sznycer, D., Al-Shawaf, L., Lim, J., Krauss, A., Feldman, A., ... & Tooby, J. (2017). The grammar of anger: Mapping the computational architecture of a recalibrational emotion. Cognition, 168, 110-128. PDF
  • Shariff, A. F. (2015). Does religion increase moral behavior?. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 108-113.PDF
  • Shariff, A. F., Willard, A. K., Andersen, T., & Norenzayan, A. (2016). Religious Priming- A metanalysis with a focus on prosociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20, 27-48. PDF
  • Shariff, A.F. & Norenzayan, A. (2007). God is watching you: Priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game. Psychological Science, 18, 803-809. PDF
  • Singer, T., Kiebel, S.J., Winston, J.S., Kaube, H., Dolan, R.J., & Frith, C.D. (2004). Brain responses to the acquired moral status of faces. Neuron, 41,653-662. PDF
  • Soderstrom, H., Hultin, L., Tullberg, M., Wikkelso, C., Ekholm, S., & Forsman, A. (2002). Reduced frontotemporal perfusion in psychopathic personality. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging114(2), 81-94. PDF
  • Stone, V., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Kroll, N. & Knight, R.T. (2002.) Selective impairment of reasoning about social exchange in a patient with bilateral limbic system damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 11531-11536. PDF
  • Takahashi, H., Yahata, N., Koeda, M., Matsuda, T., Asai, K., & Okubo, Y. (2004). Brain activation associated with evaluative processes of guilt and embarrassment: An fMRI study. Neuroimage23(3), 967-974.
  • Tomasello, M.  & Vaish, A. (2013). Origins of human cooperation and morality.  Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 231–55. PDF
  • Tsoi, L., Dungan, J., Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2016). Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition. Neuroimage, 137, 86-96. PDF
  • Uhlmann, E. L., Pizarro, D. A., & Diermeier, D. (2015). A person-centered approach to moral judgment. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(1), 72-81.PDF
  • Van Elk, M., Matzke, D., Gronau, Q. F., Guan, M., Vandekerckhove, J., & Wagenmakers, E. J. (2015). Meta-analyses are no substitute for registered replications: A skeptical perspective on religious priming. Frontiers in psychology, 6.PDF
  • Wallace, B., Cesarini, D., Lichtenstein, P., & Johannesson, M. (2007). Heritability of ultimatum game responder behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10(1073). PDF
  • Wallach, W., Franklin, S., & Allen, C. (2010). A conceptual and computational model of moral decision making in human and artificial agents. In W. Wallach & S. Franklin (Eds.), Topics in Cognitive Science, special issue on Cognitive Based Theories of Moral Decision Making (pp. 454-485): Cognitive Science Society. PDF
  • Willard, A. K., Shariff, A. F., & Norenzayan, A. (2016). Religious priming as a research tool for studying religion- Evidentiary value, current issues, and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 71-75. PDF
  • Young, L., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Hauser, M., & Damasio, A. (2010). Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent. Neuron, 65, 845-851. PDF
  • Young, L., Camprodon, J., Hauser, M., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2010). Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 6753-6758. PDF
  • Young, L., Cushman, F., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., & Hauser, M. D. (2006). Does emotion mediate the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status? Neuropsychological evidence. Journal of Cognition and Culture6(1-2), 265-278. PDF
The studies linked on this page are accessible via the researchers' websites and other public domain sources. If not linked, those studies are only available via academic journals.

Select Language:

English

Español

Français

Deutsch

Português (Brasil)

Português (Europa)

Nederlands

Italiano

Svenska

Русский

Bahasa Indonesia

Český

Türkçe

עברית

فارسی

العَرَبِيةُ‎‎



Esperanto

More translations
coming soon!

The Brights' Net
P.O. Box 163418
Sacramento, CA 95816 USA

E-mail: the-brights@the-brights.net
To be counted as a Bright, please use the registration form.

Copyright © 2018 The Brights' Network. All rights reserved.

 

Creative Commons License
"the brights" logo by The Brights' Net is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Based on a work at the-brights.net.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://the-brights.net.